Learning Objectives

  1. To review the basic structure of neurons
  2. To review the electrophysiological properties of neurons, including the generation of the resting membrane potential and action potentials.
  3. To review the process of synaptic transmission.
  4. To list the major neurotransmitters used for signaling by the nervous system: glutamate, acetylcholine, GABA, glycine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin.
  5. To understand the differences between metabotropic and ionotropic receptors.
  6. To appreciate the differences in neuronal responses of glutamate binding to AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptors.
  7. To describe the process of long term potentiation in the nervous system.
  8. To understand the basis of excitotoxicity.
  9. To discern the differences in cellular responses of acetylcholine binding to nicotinic and muscarinic receptors.
  10. To understand the differential distribution of glycine and GABA receptors in the nervous system, and the effects of agonists binding to these receptors.
  11. To discuss the effects of allosteric modulators on GABA receptors.
  12. To appreciate the locations of neurons that release the monoamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.
  13. To review the types and physiological roles of receptors that bind norepinephrine and epinephrine.
  14. To understand how changes in plasma levels of calcium and magnesium alter neuronal excitability, and the physiological consequences of this altered excitability.


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